FullDescription:Safety occurrence

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ATFCM incident

Link Semantic Value
Term ATFCM incident
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Broader term

Air Traffic Flow and Capacity Management (ATFCM)

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

A significant occurrence affecting an air traffic services unit, an aircraft operator or a Central Management Unit resulting from the application of air traffic flow management measures or procedures.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL, Supplement to the CFMU Handbook, ATFCM OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR FMP, Ed. 15 (2011)

Note

Accident

Link Semantic Value
Term '
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aircraft accident

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Narrower term


Abbreviation

ACCID

Definition

An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which, in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion system is shut down, in which::

a) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of:

— being in the aircraft, or

— direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft, or

— direct exposure to jet blast, except when the injuries are from natural causes, self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew; or

b) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which:

— adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and

— would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component, except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to a single engine, (including its cowlings or accessories), to propellers, wing tips, antennas, probes, vanes, tires, brakes, wheels, fairings, panels, landing gear doors, windscreens, the aircraft skin (such as small dents or puncture holes) or for minor damages to main rotor blades, tail rotor blades, landing gear, and those resulting from hail or bird strike (including holes in the radome);or c) the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition added to An 11 by Amdt 40 (01/11/2001) and modified by Amdt 13 to An 13 (2010)

Note

Note 1.— For statistical uniformity only, an injury resulting in death within thirty days of the date of the accident is classified, by ICAO, as a fatal injury .

Note 2.— An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located. Should the wreckage be subsequently located, consideration should be given to re-open the investigation as per 5.13.

Note 3.— The type of unmanned aircraft system to be investigated is addressed in 5.1 [of Annex 13].

Note 4.— Guidance for the determination of aircraft damage can be found in Attachment G [of Annex 13].

Aerodrome Hot Spot

Link Semantic Value
Term Aerodrome Hot Spot
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runway hotspot

hot spot (Official ICAO term)

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runway incursion

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Narrower term


Definition

A location on an aerodrome movement area with a history or potential risk of either collision or runway incursion, and where heightened attention by pilots/drivers is necessary.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official term and definition added to An 4 by Amdt 54 (2007) and PANS-ATM by Amdt 5 (2007). Guidance material related to hot spots is contained in the Runway Incursion Manual (Doc 9870).

Note

Aircraft proximity

Link Semantic Value
Term aircraft proximity
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Abbreviation

AIRPROX

Definition

A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their relative positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, PANS-ATM Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Air Traffic Management [Doc 4444] 2001, 14th ed. (Amdt 3, 29/06/2004)

Note

An aircraft proximity is classified as follows:

Risk of collision. The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which serious risk of collision has existed.

Safety not assured. The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which the safety of the aircraft may have been compromised.

No risk of collision. The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which no risk of collision has existed.

Risk not determined. The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which insufficient information was available to determine the risk involved, or inconclusive or conflicting evidence precluded such determination.

Airspace infringement

Link Semantic Value
Term airspace infringement
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unauthorised penetration of airspace

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Broader term

loss of separation

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

The penetration by an aircraft into a portion of airspace without prior permission of the appropriate authorities (when such prior permission is required)

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL HEIDI – ESARR 2 taxonomy

Note

Cockpit Voice Recorder

Link Semantic Value
Term Cockpit Voice Recorder
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Flight Data Recorder (FDR)

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

CVR

Definition

a device used to record the audio environment in the flight deck for the purpose of investigation of accidents and incidents.

Definition Source

Skybrary, http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Cockpit_Voice_Recorder_(CVR)

Note

The CVR records and stores the audio signals of the microphones and earphones of the pilots’ headsets and of an area microphone installed in the cockpit. (Note source: Skybrary)

Conflict

Link Semantic Value
Term conflict
Status


Mandatory for


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Synonyms

aircraft conflict

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Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Converging of aircraft in space and time which constitutes a predicted violation of a given set of separation minima.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL, (2009), "Safety Nets, Ensuring Effectiveness, Guide", Terms and definitions used in the EUROCONTROL Specifications, definition derived from ICAO Doc 9426

Note

Controlled flight into terrain

Link Semantic Value
Term controlled flight into terrain
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Broader term

loss of separation

Narrower term


Abbreviation

CFIT

Definition

Accident in which aircraft, under the control of the crew, is flown into terrain (or water) with no prior awareness on the part of the crew of the impending accident.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL (2000) ESARR 2 - Edition 1.1 - 30.03.2000, Attachment C to Annex 1 ("Glossary of terms and definitions"), referring to ICAO Circular 272-AN/161

Note

Ref. ICAO Circular 272-AN/161

EUROCONTROL Voluntary ATM Incident Reporting

Link Semantic Value
Term EUROCONTROL Voluntary ATM Incident Reporting
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Abbreviation

EVAIR

Definition

the first tool to collect aviation incident data and improve data sharing and understanding at national and European levels.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL (2011), webpage "Aviation incidents under closer scrutiny", [1]

Note

Jet efflux hazard

Link Semantic Value
Term jet efflux hazard
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Abbreviation

Definition

Hazard associated with the force or wind generated behind a jet engine, particularly on or before take-off when high/full power is set, but also when the aircraft is taxiing.

Definition Source

ALICIA project (All Conditions Operations and Innovative Cockpit infrastructure), doc. D1.1-2 FUTURE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS (2010) [2]

Note

Level bust

Link Semantic Value
Term level bust
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Broader term

loss of separation

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Any unauthorised vertical deviation of more than 300 feet from an ATC flight clearance.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL EATMP Glossary, June 2001

Note

Within RVSM airspace this limit is reduced to 200 feet.(EUROCONTROL - HEIDI)

Definitions applied by other organisations are similar but sometimes refer to a deviation of 300 feet or more.

The level bust issue only relates to aircraft in controlled airspace or a designated ATZ outside controlled airspace and under either radar or procedural ATC control.


(Note source: Skybrary, URL: http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Level_Bust)

Loss of separation

Link Semantic Value
Term loss of separation
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level bust

wake vortex turbulence

airspace infringement

controlled flight into terrain

Abbreviation

LOS

Definition

A defined loss of separation between airborne aircraft occurs whenever specified separation minima in Controlled Airspace are breached. Minimum separation standards for airspace are specified by ATS authorities, based on ICAO standards.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY (2013} [3]

Note

Mid-air collision

Link Semantic Value
Term mid-air collision
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Near mid-air collision

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

MAC

Definition

an accident where two aircraft come into contact with each other while both are in flight.

Definition Source

EASA (2013) European Aviation Safety Plan 2013-2016

Note

Near mid-air collision

Link Semantic Value
Term near mid-air collision
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Near Midair Collision

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Broader term

mid-air collision

Narrower term


Abbreviation

NMAC

Definition

an incident associated with the operation of an aircraft in which the possibility of collision occurs as a result of proximity of less than 500 feet to another aircraft, or a report is received from a pilot or flight crewmember stating that a collision hazard existed between two or more aircraft.

Definition Source

FAA (2010) FAA Order 8020.11C

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Occurrence

Link Semantic Value
Term occurrence
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flight safety occurrence

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Abbreviation

Definition

Accidents, serious incidents and incidents as well as other defects or malfunctioning of an aircraft, its equipment and any element of the Air Navigation System which is used or intended to be used for the purpose or in connection with the operation of an aircraft or with the provision of an air traffic management service or navigational aid to an aircraft.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL (2009) ESARR 2 – Reporting and Assessment of Safety Occurrences in ATM

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Overload

Link Semantic Value
Term overload
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over-delivery

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Abbreviation

Definition

An occurrence when an air traffic controller reports that he/she has had to handle more traffic than they consider it was safe to do so.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL CFMU, SUPPLEMENT TO THE CFMU HANDBOOK, ATFCM OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR FMP, Edition N°: 4.1, WITH EFFECT FROM 01 JULY 2010

Note

Runway excursion

Link Semantic Value
Term runway excursion
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runway incursion

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

A runway excursion occurs when an aircraft fails to confine its take off or landing to the designated runway.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY, electronic repository of safety data related to ATM, http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Runway_Excursion

Note

Types of Runway Excursion

A departing aircraft fails to become airborne or sucessfully reject the take off before reaching the end of the designated runway.

A landing aircraft is unable to stop before the end of the designated runway is reached.

An aircraft taking off, rejecting take off or landing departs the side of the designated runway.

An aircraft attempting a landing touches down in the undershoot area of the designated landing runway within the aerodrome perimeter.

A runway or taxiway other than the designated one is used for a take off or a landing

Runway incursion

Link Semantic Value
Term runway incursion
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runway excursion

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

RI

Definition

1) Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft.

2) Any unauthorised presence on a runway of aircraft, vehicle, person or object where an avoiding action was required to prevent a collision with an aircraft.

Definition Source

1) ICAO (2005) ICAO Document 4444 "Air Traffic Management - Procedures for Air Navigation Services", page 1-10

2) EUROCONTROL (2009) ESARR 2 Reporting and Assessment of Safety Occurences in ATM

Note

FAA adopted the ICAO definition of "runway incursion" in 2007: FAA order 8020.11C

Taxiway incursion

Link Semantic Value
Term taxiway incursion
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runway incursion

Broader term


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Abbreviation

Definition

Any occurrence [/] unauthorized presence on a taxiway of an aircraft, vehicle, person or object that creates a collision hazard or results in a potential loss of separation.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL; EVAIR Safety Bulletin, No. 8 (2008-2011)

Note

Vortex ring

Link Semantic Value
Term vortex ring
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settling with power

power settling

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Abbreviation

Definition

a flight condition in which helicopter main rotor lift is suddenly lost even though it is powered and loss of control results.

Definition Source

Skybrary (2013), (electronic repository of safety data related to ATM and aviation safety) URL: http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Vortex_Ring

Note

The cause of what might be termed secondary vortex ring is the recycling of the normal main rotor tip vortices into the induced airflow of inner blade sections of the rotor. This condition is possible when the rate of descent of a helicopter is greater than half the air speed induced by the rotor and results in airflow of the inner blade sections changing from downward relative to the rotor disk to upwards. The boundary along the rotor disc at which the upward motion of the inner blade sections meets the normal downward motion of the outer blade sections produces the severe airflow instability of the ‘vortex ring’ and the resultant aerodynamic inefficiencies. The vortex ring condition is an unstable one. If it is allowed to continue, loss of control in rough air conditions will occur as the ring moves outwards along the blade span until there is no lift at all. (same source)

Wake vortex turbulence

Link Semantic Value
Term wake vortex turbulence
Status


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wake vortex

wake turbulence

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Broader term

loss of separation

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

turbulence which is generated by the passage of an aircraft through the air.

Definition Source

Skybrary (2010), (electronic repository of safety data related to ATM and aviation safety) URL: http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Wake_Vortex_Turbulence

Note