FullDescription:Safety

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Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System

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Term Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System
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SESAR

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aerodrome visibility operational level (AVOL)

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Abbreviation

A-SMGCS

Definition

a system providing routing, guidance and surveillance for the control of aircraft and vehicles in order to maintain the declared surface movement rate under all weather conditions within the aerodrome visibility operational level (AVOL) while maintaining the required level of safety.

Definition Source

ICAO Doc 9830: Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS) Manual

Note

Lexicon Release

Lexicon Release 2015.2

Aerodrome Hot Spot

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Term Aerodrome Hot Spot
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runway hotspot

hot spot (Official ICAO term)

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runway incursion

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Definition

A location on an aerodrome movement area with a history or potential risk of either collision or runway incursion, and where heightened attention by pilots/drivers is necessary.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official term and definition added to An 4 by Amdt 54 (2007) and PANS-ATM by Amdt 5 (2007). Guidance material related to hot spots is contained in the Runway Incursion Manual (Doc 9870).

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Aerodrome Runway Incursion Assessment

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Term Aerodrome Runway Incursion Assessment
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Aerodrome Runway Incursion Assessment tool

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Local Runway Safety Team (LRST)

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Abbreviation

ARIA

Definition

a computer based assessment that assists Local Runway Safety Teams in assessing the possibility of runway incursions occurring at their airport

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL (2008), doc. "Development of a Computer Based Aerodrome Runway Incursion Assessment", Ed. 1.0 [1]

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Aircraft conflict data

Link Semantic Value
Term aircraft conflict data
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conflict

Medium-Term Conflict Detection (MTCD)

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Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

data consisting "of system trajectory identifications (2 aircraft):

a) time of first loss of separation between aircraft probable position, plus worst probable positions of both aircraft at this time, plus nominal positions of both aircraft at this time;

b) time of minimum distance between aircraft nominal positions, plus nominal positions of both aircraft at this time;

c) time of minimum distance between aircraft probable positions, plus worst probable positions of both aircraft at this time, plus nominal positions of both aircraft at this time;

d) time of last loss of separation between aircraft probable position, plus worst probable positions of both aircraft at this time, plus nominal positions of both aircraft at this time."

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL (2004) EATM glossary, June 2004

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Aircraft proximity

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Term aircraft proximity
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Abbreviation

AIRPROX

Definition

A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their relative positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, PANS-ATM Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Air Traffic Management [Doc 4444] 2001, 14th ed. (Amdt 3, 29/06/2004)

Note

An aircraft proximity is classified as follows:

Risk of collision. The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which serious risk of collision has existed.

Safety not assured. The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which the safety of the aircraft may have been compromised.

No risk of collision. The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which no risk of collision has existed.

Risk not determined. The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which insufficient information was available to determine the risk involved, or inconclusive or conflicting evidence precluded such determination.

Alert phase

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Term alert phase
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Abbreviation

ALERFA

Definition

A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants.

Definition Source

ICAO (2007), Annex 11 and 12; PANS-ATM

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Buffer area

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Term buffer area
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holding area

holding pattern

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Abbreviation

Definition

"the area extending 9.3 km (5.0 NM) beyond the boundary of the holding area within which the height and nature of obstacles shall be taken into consideration when determining the minimum holding level usable in the holding pattern associated with the holding area."

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, PANS-OPS/II, 1993, Amdt 7, p. 4-6

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Co-operative Separation Assurance

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Term Co-operative Separation Assurance
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=

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Abbreviation

COSEP

Definition

advanced surveillance enabler - consisting of exchanges of state and intent data from aircraft to aircraft - to delegate separation assurance applications, such as in-trail or station keeping manoeuvres, crossing manoeuvres, airborne conflict avoidance, to aircrew under given conditions

Definition Source

ICAO (2002), "AERONAUTICAL MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS PANEL (AMCP), Working Group C - 5th meeting, 15 - 25 October 2002: AMCP/8 REPORT, chapters 8 and 9", Document AMCP WGC5/WP2. URL: http://www.icao.int/anb/panels/amcp/wg/C/wgc5/wgc5/wgc5_wp2.doc

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Emergency locator transmitter

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Term emergency locator transmitter
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Abbreviation

ELT

Definition

A generic term describing equipment which broadcast distinctive signals on designated frequencies and, depending on application, may be automatically activated by impact or be manually activated. An ELT may be any of the following:

Automatic fixed ELT (ELT(AF)). An automatically activated ELT which is permanently attached to an aircraft.

Automatic portable ELT (ELT(AP)). An automatically activated ELT which is rigidly attached to an aircraft but readily removable from the aircraft.

Automatic deployable ELT (ELT(AD)). An ELT which is rigidly attached to an aircraft and which is automatically deployed and activated by impact, and, in some cases, also by hydrostatic sensors. Manual deployment is also provided.

Survival ELT (ELT(S)). An ELT which is removable from an aircraft, stowed so as to facilitate its ready use in an emergency, and manually activated by survivors.

Definition Source

ICAO (2010) Official definition, ANNEX 6/I, Operation of Aircraft — International Commercial Air Transport — Aeroplanes

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Emergency phase

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Term emergency phase
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Abbreviation

Definition

A generic term meaning, as the case may be, uncertainty phase, alert phase or distress phase.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, ANNEX 11 Air Traffic Services 2001, 13th ed. (Amdt 42, 14/07/2004)

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European Aviation Safety Programme

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Term European Aviation Safety Programme
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Abbreviation

EASP

Definition

European regional approach to the ICAO requirements of State Safety Programmes. It contains an integrated set of regulations and activities to improve safety within EASA Member States.

Definition Source

EASA (2013) European Aviation Safety Plan 2013-2016

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Flight data analysis

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Term flight data analysis
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flight data monitoring

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Abbreviation

Definition

A process of analysing recorded flight data in order to improve the safety of flight operations.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, AN 6/I Operation of Aircraft — International Commercial Air Transport — Aeroplanes 2010

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Flight safety occurrence

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Term flight safety occurrence
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Abbreviation

Definition

Any operational interruption, defect, fault or other irregular circumstance that has or may have influenced flight safety that has not resulted in an aircraft accident or aircraft incident.

Definition Source

ICAO (2003), ELEVENTH AIR NAVIGATION CONFERENCE, Montreal, 22 September to 3 October 2003: "Agenda Item 2: Safety and security in air traffic management (ATM) - 2.1:Safety management systems and programmes: IMPLEMENTATION OF A MANDATORY, CONFIDENTIAL AND NON-PUNITIVE REPORTING SYSTEM FOR CIVIL AVIATION IN DENMARK", AN-Conf/11-IP/10, 18/9/03

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Foreign Object Damage

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Term Foreign Object Damage
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SESAR

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Foreign Object Debris

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Abbreviation

FOD

Definition

any damage done to aircraft, helicopters, launch vehicles, engines or other aviation equipment by hard body (usually) Foreign Object Debris entering the engines, flight controls or other operating systems.

Definition Source

NATO, RTO-TR-AVT-094, Chapter 1 [2]

Note

Lexicon Release

Lexicon Release 2015.2

Foreign Object Debris

Link Semantic Value
Term Foreign Object Debris
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SESAR

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Foreign Object Damage

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Abbreviation

FOD

Definition

substances, debris or any articles that could potentially cause damage to a vehicle or engine. It is anything – large or small – inside or around aircraft and flight-line operations that does not belong there – which could create a hazard to equipment or personnel.

Definition Source

NATO, RTO-TR-AVT-094, Chapter 1 [3]

Note

Lexicon Release

Lexicon Release 2015.2

Hazard

Link Semantic Value
Term hazard
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Mandatory for


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ICAO; EASA

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Abbreviation

Definition

1) A condition or an object with the potential to cause injuries to personnel, damage to equipment or structures, loss of material, or reduction of the ability to perform a prescribed function


2) Any condition, event, or circumstance which could induce a harmful effect.

Definition Source

1) ICAO (2012) Circular 329-AN/191 (Assessment, Measurement and Reporting of Runway Surface Conditions)

2) Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1035/2011 of 17 October 2011 laying down common requirements for the provision of air navigation services "http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:271:0023:0041:EN:PDF"

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Holding area

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Term holding area
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buffer area

holding pattern

holding stack

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Abbreviation

Definition

The airspace to be protected for holding aircraft in accordance with ATC holding criteria.

Definition Source

Transport Canada (2010) Glossary for Pilots and Air Traffic Services Personnel (TP 11958E) [4]

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Holding fix

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Term holding fix
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holding area

holding stack

Holding Procedure

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Abbreviation

Definition

A geographical location that serves as a reference for a holding procedure.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official term and definition added to PANS-ATM by Amdt 4 (24/11/2005) and to PANS-OPS (Doc 8168, Volume I) by Amdt 3 (Interim Edition 2008).

Note

This term supersedes the formerly used term holding point.

Holding pattern

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Term holding pattern
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holding area

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Abbreviation

Definition

1. A predetermined racetrack pattern flown as part of a holding procedure.

2. U.S.: Expression for: Holding Procedure

Definition Source

Transport Canada (2010), Glossary for Pilots and Air Traffic Services Personnel (TP 11958E) [5]

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Holding point

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Term holding point
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holding area

holding stack

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Abbreviation

Definition

A specified location, identified by visual or other means, in the vicinity of which the position of an aircraft in flight is maintained in accordance with air traffic control clearances.

Definition Source

ICAO, FORMERLY Official definition, Official term and definition deleted from PANS-ATM by Amdt 4 (24/11/2005).

Note

term replaced by holding fix

Holding stack

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Term holding stack
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holding area

holding point

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Abbreviation

Definition

A number of aircraft holding at a common fix with vertical separation.

Definition Source

Transport Canada (2010) Glossary for Pilots and Air Traffic Services Personnel (TP 11958E)[6]

Note

also called: stack

In-flight icing

Link Semantic Value
Term in-flight icing
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Abbreviation

Definition

Ice accreted on an aircraft structure and/or its engines and their air inlets as a result of flight in atmospheric icing conditions.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY, aviation safety knowledge reference tool, [7]

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Inadequate separation

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Incident

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serious incident

Abbreviation

Definition

An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition,

ANNEX 11 Air Traffic Services 2001,

ANNEX 13 Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation 2010

Note

"The types of incidents which are of main interest to the International Civil Aviation Organization for accident prevention studies are listed in Attachment C of Annex 13" (same source).

Integrity

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Term integrity
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Abbreviation

Definition

A measure of the trust that can be placed in the correctness of the information supplied by the total system. Integrity includes the ability of a system to provide timely and valid warnings to the user (alerts).

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, Annex 10, Vol. I (Aeronautical Communications), Chapter 3

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International Aviation Safety Assessment

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Term International Aviation Safety Assessment
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Abbreviation

IASA

Definition

a programme established by the FAA with the purpose to ensure that all aircraft operators registered outside United States that operate to or from the U.S. are properly licensed and are subject to safety oversight provided by a competent Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) in accordance with ICAO standards.

Definition Source

Skybrary, 2010 (electronic repository of safety data related to ATM and aviation safety) URL: http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/International_Aviation_Safety_Assessment_(IASA)

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Just culture

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Term just culture
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EUROCONTROL

ECAC

EU

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Abbreviation

Definition

A culture in which front line operators or others are not punished for actions, omissions or decisions taken by them that are commensurate with their experience and training, but where gross negligence, wilful violations and destructive acts are not tolerated.

Definition Source

36th Session of the Assembly of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) Montréal, 18-28 September 2007; TECHNICAL COMMISSION - Agenda Item 30 – Other Safety Matters, IMPLEMENTATION OF A "JUST CULTURE" CONCEPT

Working Paper presented by Portugal, on behalf of the European Community and its Member States, by the other States Members of the European Civil Aviation Conference, and by Eurocontrol

Note

ICAO seems to prefer the term "safety culture" in this respect.

Lateral separation

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Term lateral separation
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Longitudinal separation

Vertical separation

Broader term

separation

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Separation between aircraft expressed in terms of distance or angular displacement between tracks

Definition Source

ICAO DOC 9426 Air Traffic Services Planning Manual 1984, p. V-1-1-8

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Local Runway Safety Team

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Term Local Runway Safety Team
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Abbreviation

LRST

Definition

A team comprised of representatives from aerodrome operations, air traffic services providers, airlines or aircraft operators, pilot and air traffic controllers associations and any other group with a direct involvement in runway operations that advise the appropriate management on the potential runway incursion issues and recommend mitigation strategies.

Definition Source

ICAO (2007), Doc 9870 AN/463, Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursions

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Longitudinal separation

Link Semantic Value
Term '
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Vertical separation

Lateral separation

Broader term

separation

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Separation between aircraft expressed in units of time or distance along track.

Definition Source

ICAO DOC 9426 Air Traffic Services Planning Manual 1984, p. V-1-1-8

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Medium-Term Conflict Detection

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Term Medium-Term Conflict Detection
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Abbreviation

MTCD

Definition

"an integrated system of predictive tools performing the calculation of aircraft trajectories, the monitoring of an aircraft’s progress against the trajectory, the detection of conflicting trajectories and the presentation of this information to the controllers up to 20 minutes ahead."

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL (2010) website on Medium-Term Confict Detection [8]

Note

Non-radar separation

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Runway contaminants

Link Semantic Value
Term runway contaminants
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Abbreviation

Definition

Substances on the runway surface that impact the operational performance of aircraft on the runway.

Definition Source

SESAR doc. 06.08.01 Operational Concept Description (OCD) and Operational Service and Environment Definition (OSED) for Time Based Separation for Arrivals (TBS), Ed 00.01.02 , 2013

Note

Lexicon Release

Lexicon Release 2015.2

Runway status light

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Term runway status light
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Abbreviation

RWSL

Definition

a fully automatic advisory safety system which provides direct alerts to both vehicles and pilots independently of the normal traffic control system operated by ATC. Its objective is to reduce both the number and severity of runway incursions and thereby prevent runway collisions.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY (2013), article on runway status lights[9]

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Safety

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Term safety
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safety risk

Abbreviation

Definition

The state in which the possibility of harm to persons or property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and risk management.

Definition Source

ICAO (2011), doc. 9735 (Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme - Continuous Monitoring Manual)

Note

Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft

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Term Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft
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Abbreviation

SAFA

Definition

safety programme based on the following principle: "in each ECAC member State, aircraft arriving from another country, including other ECAC member countries, are subject to ramp inspections chiefly concerned with the aircraft's documents and crew, the apparent condition of the aircraft and the carriage of mandatory cabin equipment. The ramp inspections are intended to identify non-compliance with ICAO requirements set out in the annexes to the Chicago Convention, specifically the provisions concerned with personnel licensing (Annex 1), the operation of aircraft (Annex 6) and airworthiness of aircraft (Annex 8)."

Definition Source

ICAO (2003), "European inspection programme targets aircraft during airport turnarounds", In. ICAO Journal - Vol. 58, No 9, November/December 2003, p.20

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Safety and Performance Requirements

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Term Safety and Performance Requirements
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Safety requirement

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Abbreviation

SPR

Definition

"requirements defining the minimum operational, safety and performance requirements for the implementation of a particular system (focusing on the equipment)"

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL (2009) EUROCONTROL, doc. "WAM Generic Guidance Process - Volume 1, Process Description", SUR Reference No.: SUR-WAM-GEN-PRO V1, Edition Number: 02.00, Edition Date: 08/01/2009, Status: Final Release

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Safety case

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Term safety case
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performance case

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Abbreviation

Definition

Both the argument and the document that contend the level of safety attained will satisfy the safety requirements. It intelligently and coherently argues the degree of safety achieved at any point of a system's life cycle by making rational and coherent reference to the documented results of the system safety approach defined above.

Definition Source

ICAO (2008), doc. 9882, Manual on Air Traffic Management System Requirements

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Safety management

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Term safety management
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safety management system

Abbreviation

Definition

The management of activities to secure high standards of safety performance meeting, as a minimum, the safety regulatory requirements. Its aim is to prevent foreseeable accidents or risk-bearing incidents and minimizing the consequences of unforeseen ones.

Definition Source

ICAO, doc. ATMCP/1 Rep, 2002, p. 2A-41, App. B (Explanation of Terms)

Note

Safety management system

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Term safety management system
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ICAO; EASA

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safety management

Narrower term


Abbreviation

SMS

Definition

A systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures.

Definition Source

1. ICAO, official definition, Annexes 1, 6, 8, 11, 14, ICAO doc. 4444 PANS-ATM (2007)

2. used also in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/373 of 1 March 2017 laying down common requirements for providers of air traffic management/air navigation services and other air traffic management network functions and their oversight URL http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017R0373&from=EN

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Safety performance

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Safety performance indicator

Safety performance target

Abbreviation

Definition

A State or a service provider’s safety achievement as defined by its safety performance targets and safety performance indicators.

Definition Source

ICAO (2013) official definition, Annex 19, Safety Management

Note

Safety performance indicator

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safety performance

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Abbreviation

SPI

Definition

A data-based parameter used for monitoring and assessing safety performance.

Definition Source

ICAO (2013) official definition, Annex 19, Safety Management

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Safety performance target

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safety performance

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Abbreviation

Definition

The planned or intended objective for safety performance indicator(s) over a given period.

Definition Source

ICAO (2013) official definition, Annex 19, Safety Management

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Safety risk

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Term safety risk
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Broader term

safety

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

The predicted probability and severity of the consequences or outcomes of a hazard.

Definition Source

ICAO (2013) official definition, Annex 19, Safety Management

Note

Separation constraint

Link Semantic Value
Term separation constraint
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SESAR

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Broader term

constraint

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

The separation to keep aircraft operating safely on final approach.

Examples are minimum radar separation to keep risk of collision to an acceptable safe level and wake turbulence radar separation to keep the risk of an adverse wake turbulence encounter to an acceptable safe level.

Definition Source

SESAR doc. 06.08.01 Operational Concept Description (OCD) and Operational Service and Environment Definition (OSED) for Time Based Separation for Arrivals (TBS), Ed 00.01.02 , 2013

Note

Lexicon Release

Lexicon Release 2015.2

Serious incident

Link Semantic Value
Term serious incident
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Broader term

incident

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

An incident involving circumstances indicating that there was a high probability of an accident and associated with the operation of an aircraft which, in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion system is shut down.

Definition Source

ICAO (2010) Official definition, Annex 13: Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation

Note

The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the result. (same source)

Stabilised approach

Link Semantic Value
Term stabilised approach
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Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC)

Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

"An approach is stabilized only if all the criteria in company standard operating procedures (SOPs) are met before or when reaching the applicable minimum stabilization height."

Definition Source

Flight Safety Foundation (FSF), doc. FSF ALAR Briefing Note 7.1. Stabilized approach [10]

Note

"The following minimum stabilization heights are recommended to achieve a stabilized approach:

- 1,000 feet above airport elevation in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC); or;

- 500 feet above airport elevation in visual meteorological conditions (VMC).

At the minimum stabilization height and below, a call should be made by the pilot not flying/pilot monitoring (PNF/PM) if any flight parameter exceeds the established criteria.

Any time an approach is not stabilized at the minimum stabilization height or becomes unstabilized below the minimum stabilization height, a go-around should be conducted."

State Safety Programme

Link Semantic Value
Term State Safety Programme
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European Aviation Safety Programme

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Narrower term


Abbreviation

SSP

Definition

An integrated set of regulations and activities aimed at improving safety.

Definition Source

ICAO(2013), Official definition, Annex 19 (Safety Management)

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Sterile flight deck

Link Semantic Value
Term sterile flight deck
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Abbreviation

Definition

Any period of time when the flight crew should not be disturbed, except for matters critical to the safe operation of the aircraft.

Definition Source

European Action Plan for the Prevention of Runway Incursions (Attachment 2 of document PC/03/16 of 20.03.2003)

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System safety approach

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Term system safety approach
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safety management

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Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

A systematic and explicit approach defining all activities and resources (people, organizations, policies, procedures, time spans, milestones, etc.) devoted to the management of safety. This approach starts before the fact, is documented, planned and explicitly supported by documented organizational policies and procedures endorsed by the highest executive levels. The system safety approach uses systems theory, systems engineering and management tools to manage risk formally, in an integrated manner, across all organizational levels, all disciplines and all system life cycle phases.

Definition Source

ICAO (2008), doc. 9882, Manual on Air Traffic Management System Requirements

Note

Target level of safety

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Term target level of safety
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Abbreviation

TLS

Definition

A generic term representing the level of risk which is considered acceptable in particular circumstances.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, ANNEX 6/I Operation of Aircraft — International Commercial Air Transport — Aeroplanes 2010

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Traffic advisory

Link Semantic Value
Term traffic advisory
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Mandatory for


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Abbreviation

TA

Definition

An indication given to the flight crew that a certain intruder is a potential threat.

Definition Source

ICAO (2011), Official definition, doc. 9863, Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) Manual

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Value of Statistical Life

Link Semantic Value
Term Value of Statistical Life
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts

SESAR

Categories


Synonyms

spelling variant:

value of a statistical life

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Abbreviation

VOSL

Definition

the monetary value of a (small and similar among the population) mortality risk reduction that would prevent one statistical death

Definition Source

The Value of a Statistical Life, H. Anderson and N. Treich, Ecole d’économie de Toulouse, February 2009 [11]

Note

Lexicon Release

Lexicon Release 2015.2

Vertical separation

Link Semantic Value
Term vertical separation
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Longitudinal separation

Lateral separation

Broader term

separation

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Separation between aircraft expressed in units of vertical distance

Definition Source

ICAO DOC 9426 Air Traffic Services Planning Manual 1984, p. V-1-1-10

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