FullDescription:Meteorology

From EUROCONTROL ATM Lexicon
Jump to: navigation, search

AIRMET

Link Semantic Value
Term AIRMET
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

Significant Meteorological Information(SIGMET)

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

information concerning en-route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of low-level aircraft operations.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official Definition, DOC 8400 Procedures for Air Navigation Services — ICAO Abbreviations and Codes 2004, 6th ed.

Note

AIRMET information

Link Semantic Value
Term AIRMET information
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

AIRMET

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Information issued by a meteorological watch office concerning the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified en-route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of low-level aircraft operations and which was not already included in the forecast issued for low-level flights in the flight information region concerned or sub-area thereof.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition

ANNEX 3 Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation 2010

ANNEX 11 Air Traffic Services 2001

Note

ASHTAM

Link Semantic Value
Term '
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

SNOWTAM

Broader term

Notice to airmen

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

A special series NOTAM notifying by means of a specific format change in activity of a volcano, a volcanic eruption and/or volcanic ash cloud that is of significance of aircraft operations

Definition Source

ICAO/OACI, "International Civil Aviation Vocabulary", Doc. 9713, Vol.1, 1998

Note

Adverse weather conditions

Link Semantic Value
Term adverse weather conditions
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts

SESAR

Categories


Synonyms

degraded weather conditions

Related entries

disruptive weather condition

Broader term

adverse conditions

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Degraded weather condition: a condition which might have a significant negative impact on airport performance unless a proper response is organized (i.e. the selection of an airport operating mode to respond to given degraded conditions and eventually the use of additional airport resources such as de-icing/anti-icing services). This would be the case when visibility is poor and/or in case of freezing conditions, precipitations, etc.

Definition Source

ATM Airport Performance Framework (ATMAP) Measuring Airport Airside and Nearby Airspace Performance, December 2009

Note

Lexicon Release

Lexicon Release 2015.2

Aerodrome forecast

Link Semantic Value
Term aerodrome forecast
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms

terminal aerodrome forecast

Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

TAF

Definition

A TAF is a forecast that consists of a concise statement of the expected meteorological conditions at an aerodrome for a specific time period. A TAF contains information on the expected surface wind, visibility, weather and clouds as well as on expected significant changes to one or more of these elements during the validity period.

Definition Source

BELGOCONTROL (2010) homepage, Meteorology [1]

Note

Two types of TAFs exist: the 'short' TAF (TAF FC) has a validity period of 9 hours and is issued every 3 hours while the 'long' TAF (TAF FT) has a validity period of 30 hours and is issued every 6 hours. (same source)

Aircraft observation

Link Semantic Value
Term aircraft observation
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

The evaluation of one or more meteorological elements made from an aircraft in flight.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, ANNEX 3 Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation 2010

Note

Aircraft turbulence

Link Semantic Value
Term aircraft turbulence
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Irregular motion of an aircraft in flight, especially when characterized by rapid up-and-down motion, caused by a rapid variation of atmospheric wind velocities.

Definition Source

American Meteorological Society (AMS), Glossary of Meteorology [2] 2000

Note

Aneroid barometer

Link Semantic Value
Term aneroid barometer
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

pressure altimeter

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.

Definition Source

American Meteorological Society, Glossary of Meteorology [3]

Note

Area of responsibility (world area forecast system)

Link Semantic Value
Term area of responsibility (world area forecast system)
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

Significant Meteorological Information

regional area forecast centre

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

A geographical area for which a regional area forecast centre prepares significant weather forecasts.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, ANNEX 3 Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation 2010

Note

Automated weather observation system

Link Semantic Value
Term automated weather observation system
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms

automatic weather observation system

Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

AWOS

Definition

a set of meteorological sensors, and associated systems designed to electronically collect and disseminate meteorological data.

Definition Source

Transport Canada, GLOSSARY FOR PILOTS AND AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES PERSONNEL, FEBRUARY 2009 EDITION

Note

Barometric altitude

Link Semantic Value
Term barometric altitude
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

pressure altimeter

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Geopotential altitude in the Earth's atmosphere above mean standard sea level pressure datum plane, measured by a pressure (barometric) altimeter.

Definition Source

ICAO, doc. GNSSP/2 Rep. p. 1A-43

Note

Clear-air turbulence

Link Semantic Value
Term clear-air turbulence
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

aircraft turbulence

wind shear

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

CAT

Definition

A higher altitude (6–15 km) turbulence phenomenon occurring in cloud-free regions, associated with wind shear, particularly between the core of a jet stream and the surrounding air.

Definition Source

American Meteorological Society (AMS), Glossary of Meteorology [4] 2000

Note

Collaborative Convective Forecast Product

Link Semantic Value
Term Collaborative Convective Forecast Product
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

CCFP

Definition

a graphical representation of forecast convective occurrence verifying at 2-, 4 -, and 6-hours after issuance time.

Definition Source

(United States) Aviation Weather Services, Advisory Circular 00-45F, Revision 1

Note

Disruptive weather condition

Link Semantic Value
Term disruptive weather condition
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts

SESAR

Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

adverse weather conditions

nominal weather condition

Broader term

adverse conditions

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

a condition which is very unlikely to occur, it has a severe impact on airport performance, but the airport does not have an appropriate organized response (this might be the case of heavy snow in Rome). In addition, convective weather might create disruptive conditions, even if the airport is well prepared to respond to weather.

Definition Source

ATM Airport Performance Framework (ATMAP) Measuring Airport Airside and Nearby Airspace Performance, December 2009

Note

Lexicon Release

Lexicon Release 2015.2

Downburst

Link Semantic Value
Term downburst
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories
Synonyms


Related entries

microburst

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

A strong downdraft current of air from a cumulonimbus cloud, often associated with intense thunderstorms. Downdrafts may produce damaging winds at the surface.

Definition Source

United States, National Weather Service, glossary [5]

Note

Fog

Link Semantic Value
Term aircraft turbulence
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

FG

Definition

A visible aggregate of minute water particles (droplets) in the air reducing the horizontal visibility at the Earth's surface to less than 1 kilometre.

Definition Source

ICAO (2000), official term, ICAO doc. 9640, Manual of Aircraft Ground De/Anti-icing Operation

Note

Horizontal wind shear

Link Semantic Value
Term horizontal wind shear
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

vertical wind shear

Broader term

wind shear

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

change of horizontal wind direction and/or speed with horizontal distance, as would be determined by two or more anemometers mounted at the same height along a runway.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY, reference tool for aviation safety knowledge [6]

ICAO, doc. CIR 186

Note

In-flight icing

Link Semantic Value
Term in-flight icing
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Ice accreted on an aircraft structure and/or its engines and their air inlets as a result of flight in atmospheric icing conditions.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY, aviation safety knowledge reference tool, [7]

Note

Instrument Meteorological Conditions

Link Semantic Value
Term Instrument Meteorological Conditions
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

Instrument Flight Rules

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

IMC

Definition

Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minima specified for visual meteorological conditions.

Definition Source

ICAO (2007) Official definition modified by Amdt 16 to An 6/II (09/11/1995)

Note

Note 1.— [An 11] The specified minima for visual meteorological conditions are contained in Annex 2.

Note 2.— [PANS-ATM] In a control zone, a VFR flight may proceed under instrument meteorological conditions if and as authorized by air traffic control.

International Airways Volcano Watch

Link Semantic Value
Term International Airways Volcano Watch
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

Significant Meteorological Information(SIGMET)

Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

IAVW

Definition

International arrangements for monitoring and providing warnings to aircraft of volcanic ash in the atmosphere.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, Definition added to An 3 by Amdt 71 (5/11/1998) and modified by Amdt 72 to An 3,14th ed (1/11/2001).

Note

The IAVW is based on the cooperation of aviation and non-aviation operational units using information derived from observing sources and networks that are provided by States. The watch is coordinated by ICAO with the cooperation of other concerned international organizations.

International Standard Atmosphere

Link Semantic Value
Term International Standard Atmosphere
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

ISA

Definition

variation of air temperature, pressure, and density with height above mean sea level. Used to normalize the results of aeroplane design calculations and to analyse test data.

Definition Source

ICAO (2008) DOC 9911 Recommended Method for Computing Noise Contours Around Airports 2008, 1st ed., p. (x)

Note

Intertropical convergence zone

Link Semantic Value
Term intertropical convergence zone
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

ITCZ

Definition

a belt of low pressure which circles the Earth near the equator where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. It is characterised by convective activity which generates often vigorous thunderstorms over large areas. It is most active over continental land masses by day and relatively less active over the oceans.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY (aviation safety knowledge reference tool) [8]

Note

Low Level Wind Shear Alert System

Link Semantic Value
Term Low Level Wind Shear Alert System
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

wind shear

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

LLWAS

Definition

a ground-based system for detecting the existence of wind shear close to an aerodrome.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY, reference tool for aviation safety knowledge [[9]]

Note

Meteorological Watch Office

Link Semantic Value
Term Meteorological Watch Office
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

MWO

Definition

A meteorological office designated to:

— maintain watch over meteorological conditions affecting flight operations within its area of responsibility (a Flight Information Region (FIR) or a control area or combinations thereof);

— prepare SIGMET and other information related to its area of responsibility;

— supply SIGMET information and, as required, other meteorological information to associated air traffic services units (i.e. ACC or FIC);

— disseminate SIGMET information;

— supply information received on pre-eruption volcanic activity, a volcanic eruption and volcanic ash cloud for which a SIGMET has not already been issued, to its associated ACC/FIC, as agreed between the meteorological and ATS authorities concerned, and to its associated Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) as determined by regional air navigation agreement; and

— supply information received concerning the accidental release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere, in the area for which it maintains watch or adjacent areas, to its associated ACC/FIC, as agreed between the meteorological and ATS authorities concerned, and to aeronautical information service units, as agreed between the meteorological and appropriate civil aviation authorities concerned.

Definition Source

ICAO, Doc. 9377 Manual on Coordination between Air Traffic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services (2008)

Note

Meteorological office

Link Semantic Value
Term meteorological office
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms

MET office

Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

An office designated to provide meteorological service for international air navigation.

Definition Source

ICAO (2010), Annex 3, Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation

Note

A meteorological office and/or aerodrome meteorological office carries out all or some of the following functions to meet the needs of flight operations at aerodromes:

— prepare and/or obtain forecasts and other relevant information (e.g. aerodrome warnings and wind shear warnings and alerts)...;

— prepare and/or obtain forecasts of local meteorological conditions (e.g. aerodrome forecasts (TAF));

— maintain a continuous survey of meteorological conditions over the aerodromes for which it is designated to prepare forecasts;

— provide briefing, consultation and flight documentation to flight crew members and/or other flight operations personnel;

— supply other meteorological information to aeronautical users, including associated ATS units (usually TWRs and APPs);

— display the available meteorological information;

— exchange meteorological information with other meteorological offices; and

— supply information received on pre-eruption volcanic activity, a volcanic eruption and volcanic ash cloud to its associated air traffic services unit, aeronautical information services unit and meteorological watch office as agreed between the meteorological, aeronautical information service and ATS authorities concerned.

Note Source

ICAO (2008), doc. 9377 Manual on Coordination between Air Traffic Services, Aeronautical Information Services and Aeronautical Meteorological Services

Meteorological services

Link Semantic Value
Term meteorological services
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

MET

Definition

Those facilities and services that furnish aviation with meteorological forecasts, briefs and observations as well as SIGMET information, VOLMET broadcasting material and any other meteorological data provided by States for aeronautical use.

Definition Source

ICAO (2011), doc. ATREPF-K, Air Navigation Services Financial Data

Note

Microburst

Link Semantic Value
Term microburst
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

downburst

wind shear

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

A downburst that covers an area less than 4 km along a side with peak winds that last 2–5 minutes.

Differential velocity across the divergence center is greater than 10 m s−1. The strong wind shears associated with a microburst can result in aircraft accidents.

Definition Source

United States, National Weather Service, glossary [10]

Note

Mountain waves

Link Semantic Value
Term mountain waves
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

oscillations to the lee side (downwind) of a mountain caused by the disturbance in the horizontal air flow caused by the high ground.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY, reference tool for aviation safety knowledge [11]

Note

Nominal weather condition

Link Semantic Value
Term nominal weather condition
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts

SESAR

Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

disruptive weather condition

adverse weather conditions

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

a weather condition which is excellent or good to conduct airport operations: CAVOK, favourable winds, etc.

Definition Source

ATM Airport Performance Framework (ATMAP) Measuring Airport Airside and Nearby Airspace Performance, December 2009

Note

Lexicon Release

Lexicon Release 2015.2

Pilot weather report

Link Semantic Value
Term pilot weather report
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

PIREP

Definition

A report by a pilot pertaining to weather conditions encountered in flight.

Definition Source

Transport Canada (2010) Glossary for Pilots and Air Traffic Services Personnel (TP 11958E) [12]

Note

Planetary boundary layer

Link Semantic Value
Term planetary boundary layer
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

The lower part of the troposphere which is directly influenced by the surface of the Earth.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY, reference tool for aviation safety knowledge [13]

Note

Pressure altimeter

Link Semantic Value
Term pressure altimeter
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms

barometric altimeter

Related entries

aneroid barometer

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

An aneroid barometer calibrated to convert atmospheric pressure into altitude.

Definition Source

American Meteorological Society, Glossary of Meteorology [14]

Note

Altimeters use standard atmosphere pressure–height relations in converting pressure into altitude. Therefore, the altimeter shows indicated altitude, which may, and frequently does, differ from the actual altitude. An altimeter may be set to measure altitude from an arbitrarily chosen level. It is common practice to use mean sea level; the level of the constant-pressure surface of 29.92 in. of mercury is also used; and, less frequently, the constant-pressure surface of the pressure at airport height. See altimeter setting, pressure altitude. (same source)

Regional area forecast centre

Link Semantic Value
Term regional area forecast centre
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

RAFC

Definition

A meteorological centre designated to prepare and supply significant weather forecasts and upper wind and temperature charts for flights departing from aerodromes within its service area and to supply grid point data in digital form for up to worldwide coverage.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, ANNEX 3 Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation 2004

Note

SNOWTAM

Link Semantic Value
Term '
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

ASHTAM

Broader term

Notice to airmen

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

A special series NOTAM notifying the presence or removal of hazardous conditions due to snow, ice, slush or standing water associated with snow, slush and ice on the movement area, by means of a specific format

Definition Source

ICAO DOC 8400 Procedures for Air Navigation Services — ICAO Abbreviations and Codes 2004, 6th ed.

Note

Significant Meteorological Information

Link Semantic Value
Term Significant Meteorological Information
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms

Significant Meteorological Message

Related entries

AIRMET

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

SIGMET

Definition

Information concerning en-route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, Doc. 8400/4 (2004)

Note

Space weather

Link Semantic Value
Term space weather
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Conditions on the sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life or health of aviation flight crews and passengers.

Definition Source

World Meteorological Organisation (2008) Space Programme SP-5, the Potential Role of WMO in Space Weather

Note

Tropical cyclone

Link Semantic Value
Term '
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Generic term for a non-frontal synoptic-scale cyclone originating over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite cyclonic surface wind circulation.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, Annex 3: Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation (2010)

Note

Tropical cyclone advisory centre

Link Semantic Value
Term tropical cyclone advisory centre
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts

EAEA

Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

Meteorological Watch Office

World Area Forecast Centre

Broader term

tropical cyclone

Narrower term


Abbreviation

TCAC

Definition

A meteorological centre designated by regional air navigation agreement to provide advisory information to meteorological watch offices, world area forecast centres and international OPMET data banks regarding the position, forecast direction and speed of movement, central pressure and maximum surface wind of tropical cyclones.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, Annex 3: Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation (2010)

Note

Vertical visibility

Link Semantic Value
Term vertical visibility
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

VV

Definition

The distance one can see upward into a surface based obscuration; or the maximum height from which a pilot in flight can recognize the ground through a surface based obscuration.

Definition Source

FAA, NOAA, "Aviation Weather", Glossary of Weather Terms [15]

Note

(followed by figures in METAR/SPECI and TAF)

Vertical wind shear

Link Semantic Value
Term vertical wind shear
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

horizontal wind shear

Broader term

wind shear

Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

change of horizontal wind direction and/or speed with height, as would be determined by means of two or more anemometers mounted at different heights on a single mast.

Definition Source

SKYBRARY, reference tool for aviation safety knowledge [16]

ICAO, doc. CIR 186, 1987, p. 154

Note

Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre

Link Semantic Value
Term Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts

EAEA

Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW)

Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

VAAC

Definition

A meteorological centre designated by regional air navigation agreement to provide advisory information to meteorological watch offices, area control centres, flight information centres, world area forecast centres and international OPMET databanks regarding the lateral and vertical extent and forecast movement of volcanic ash in the atmosphere following volcanic eruptions.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, added to An 3 by Amdt 71 (5/11/1998)

Note

Volcanic ash

Link Semantic Value
Term volcanic ash
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

Definition

Fine particles of mineral matter from a volcanic eruption which can be dispersed long distances by winds aloft.

Definition Source

UNITED STATES, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA) Glossary [17]

Note

The chemical composition and abrasiveness of the particles can seriously affect aircraft and also machinery on the ground. If it is blown into the stratosphere and it is thick enough, it can decrease the global temperature

Wind shear

Link Semantic Value
Term wind shear
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries

clear-air turbulence

Broader term


Narrower term

vertical wind shear

horizontal wind shear

Abbreviation

Definition

"A change in wind speed and/or wind direction in a short distance, resulting in a tearing or shearing effect. It can exist in a horizontal or vertical direction, and occasionally in both."

Definition Source

NATO: NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD/NATO) (1980), "Agard Multilingual Aeronautical Dictionary", Second Edition, London

Note

World Area Forecast Centre

Link Semantic Value
Term World Area Forecast Centre
Status


Mandatory for


Contexts


Categories


Synonyms


Related entries


Broader term


Narrower term


Abbreviation

WAFC

Definition

A meteorological centre designated to prepare and issue significant weather forecasts and upper-air forecasts in digital form on a global basis direct to States by appropriate means as part of the aeronautical fixed service.

Definition Source

ICAO, Official definition, Annex 3: Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation (2010)

Note