FullDescription:Environment

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Background noise

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Term background noise
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Definition

The combined noise present in a measurement system from sources other than the test aircraft, which can influence or obscure the aircraft noise levels being measured.

Definition Source

ICAO (2005) Official definition, ANNEX 16/I Environmental Protection — Aircraft Noise 2005, 4th ed., App 2-3 (3.1)

Note

Typical elements of background noise include (but are not limited to): ambient noise from sources around the microphone site; thermal electrical noise generated by components in the measurement system; magnetic flux noise (“tape hiss”) from analog tape recorders; and digitization noise caused by quantization error in digital converters. Some elements of background noise, such as digitization noise, can obscure the aircraft noise signal, while others, such as ambient noise, can also contribute energy to the measured aircraft noise signal.

Carbon dioxide equivalent

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Term carbon dioxide equivalent
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Definition

a measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential. (For example, the global warming potential for methane over 100 years is 21. This means that emissions of one million metric tons of methane is equivalent to emissions of 21 million metric tons of carbon dioxide.)

Definition Source

OECD Glossary of statistical terms (2005) referred source: Environmental Indicators for Agriculture – Vol. 3: Methods and Results, OECD, 2001, glossary, pages 389-391

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Climate change

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Term climate change
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Definition

a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.

Definition Source

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Article 1, Definitions [1]

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Collaborative Environmental Management

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Term Collaborative Environmental Management
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CEM

Definition

a commonly agreed strategic management process for establishing an airport environmental partnership, between the key operational stakeholders at an airport.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL (2008), Airport Environmental Partnership - "...a guide to implementing collaborative environmental management at airports" [2]

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CEM is a key SESAR enabler and the SESAR ATM Master Plan requires that CEM is widespread practice by 2013.

Core Inventory of Air Emissions

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Term Core Inventory of Air Emissions
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CORINAIR

Definition

a project performed since 1995 by the European Topic Centre on Air Emissions under contract to the European Environment Agency. The aim is to collect, maintain, manage and publish information on emissions into the air, by means of a European air emission inventory and database system. This concerns air emissions from all sources relevant to the environmental problems of climate change, acidification, eutrophication, tropospheric ozone, air quality and dispersion of hazardous substances.

Definition Source

European Environment Agency, homepage, Glossary [3]

Note

Before 1995 the CORINAIR project was developed under the CORINE programme of the EU (CO-oRdination d'INformation Environnementale, a programme established by Council Decision 85/338/EEC). The geographical scope of the current CORINAIR project is the 15 EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Latvia, Malta, Slovenia and the Slovak Republic (EEA24 countries) and the remaining severn candidates for EU membership - the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Turkey. (same source)

European Climate Exchange

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ECX

Definition

the leading marketplace for trading carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Europe and internationally.

Definition Source

European Environment Agency (EEA), website [4]

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European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme

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Term European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme
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EMEP

Definition

the Co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long range transmission of air pollutants in Europe, linked to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The main objective of the EMEP programme is to regularly provide Governments and subsidiary bodies under the LRTAP Convention with qualified scientific information to support the development and further evaluation of the international protocols on emission reductions negotiated within the Convention(LRTAP).

Definition Source

European Environment Agency(EEA), website, Glossary, [5]

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Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

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Term Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution
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LRTAP

Definition

the observed effect that air pollutants can travel several thousand kilometres before deposition and damage occurs (acidification, eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and dispersion of hazardous substances).

Definition Source

European Environment Agency (EEA), website, Glossary [6]

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To address this problem, the UN ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution was signed in Geneva in 1979 and entered into force in 1983.

The Convention was the first internationally legally binding instrument to deal with problems of air pollution on a broad regional basis. (same source)

Noise Sensitivity Depreciation Index

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Term Noise Sensitivity Depreciation Index
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NSDI

Definition

the percentage change in house prices per dB increase in noise level.

Definition Source

EUROPEAN UNION (2002), The State-Of-The-Art on Economic Valuation of Noise, Final Report to European Commission DG Environment, April 14th 2002, Ståle Navrud, Department of Economics and Social Sciences Agricultural University of Norway [7]

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Noise factor

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Term noise factor
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Definition

A figure defined for a receiver as the ratio of the noise at the output of the practical receiver and the noise output of an ideal receiver at standard temperature T0 (290° K). The noise factor is in practice defined as the Signal-to-Noise ratio at the input divided by the Signal-to-Noise ratio at the output of a receiver.

Definition Source

EUROCONTROL (1997) "Radar Sensor Performance Analysis", doc. SUR.ET1.ST03.1000-STD-01-01

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